4.9 Groundwater

As development has occurred in the watershed, groundwater patterns have been fundamentally altered.  Increased impervious surface has reduced the amount of naturally-occurring infiltration and surficial groundwater recharge.  Urbanization and storm sewers channel stormwater away from where it fell to some other location.  As a result, sensitive groundwater resources such as wetlands, tamarack swamps, springs and seeps may be forever altered.  Baseflow in streams has been reduced; many streams in the watershed, including Minnehaha Creek, have periods of little or no flow in summer.